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Pain-related beliefs among Chinese patients with chronic pain: The construct and concurrent predictive validity of the Chinese version of the Survey of pain Attitudes-14 (ChSOPA-14)


Wong WS, Jensen MP, Mak KH, Fielding R



Publication Info:

Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 42(3):470-478


CONTEXT: Pain beliefs as indexed by the Survey of Pain Attitudes (SOPA) have been consistently shown to predict pain adjustment outcomes in Western populations. However, its utility in non-Western populations is unclear.
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the construct and predictive validity of the Chinese version of the 14-item SOPA (ChSOPA-14) in a sample of Chinese patients with chronic pain.
METHODS: A total of 208 Chinese patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain completed the ChSOPA-14, the Chronic Pain Grade questionnaire, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, and measures of sociodemographic characteristics.
RESULTS: Except Medical Cure, all ChSOPA-14 scales were significantly correlated with validity criterion measures (all P<0.05) in expected directions. The present Chinese sample scored the highest on the Medical Cure scale (mean=2.98, standard deviation [SD]=1.05) but the lowest on the Disability scale (mean=1.75, SD=1.67). Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that the ChSOPA-14 scales predicted concurrent depression (F(7,177)=14.51, P<0.001) and pain disability (F(7,180)=8.77, P<0.001). Pain Control (std▀ [standardized beta coefficient]=-0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -3.41, -0.13; P<0.05) and Emotion (std▀=29; 95% CI: 1.76, 5.02; P<0.001) emerged as significant independent predictors of concurrent depression whereas Disability (std▀=0.19; 95% CI: 1.33, 7.88; P<0.01), Emotion (std▀=16; 95% CI: 0.08, 7.59; P<0.05), and Solicitude (std▀=-0.14; 95% CI: -7.05, -0.04; P<0.05) significantly associated with concurrent disability.
CONCLUSION: The findings offer preliminary evidence for the construct and concurrent predictive validity of the ChSOPA-14. This makes available a suitable instrument for chronic pain in the Chinese population and will facilitate future cross-cultural research on pain beliefs.

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