University of Washington

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine

Search Again


How do sock ply changes affect residual-limb fluid volume in people with transtibial amputation?


Sanders JE, Harrison DS, Allyn KJ, Myers TR, Ciol MA, Tsai EC



Publication Info:

J Rehabil Res Dev, 49(2):241-256


The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of sock addition and removal on residual-limb fluid volume in people using prosthetic limbs. We used bioimpedance analysis to measure residual-limb extracellular fluid volume on 28 transtibial amputee subjects during 30 min test sessions. Upon addition of a one-ply polyester sock, residual-limb fluid volume changes ranged from -4.0% to 0.8% (mean -0.9 +/- 1.3%) of the initial limb fluid volume. Changes for sock removal ranged from -1.2% to 2.8% (mean 0.5 +/- 0.8%). Subjects who reduced in fluid volume with both addition and removal of a sock and subjects with high positive ratios between the fluid-volume loss upon sock addition and gain upon sock removal (high add/remove [AR] ratios) tended to have arterial disease, were obese, and were smokers. Subjects with low positive AR ratios, subjects who increased in fluid volume both with sock addition and removal, and a single subject who increased in fluid volume with sock addition and decreased with sock removal tended to be nonsmokers and either individuals in good health without complications or individuals without arterial problems. Results are relevant for the anticipation of limb volume changes during prosthetic fitting and toward the design of adjustable-socket technologies.

Link to Article:

© Copyright 2000-2018 University of Washington