University of Washington

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine

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Effects of self-hypnosis training and EMG biofeedback relaxation training on chronic pain in persons with spinal cord injury


Jensen, M. P., Barber, J., Romano, J., Hanley, M. A., Raichle, K., Molton, I., et al



Publication Info:

International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 57(3):239-268


Thirty-seven adults with spinal-cord injury and chronic pain were randomly assigned to receive 10 sessions of self-hypnosis (HYP) or EMG biofeedback relaxation (BIO) training for pain management. Participants in both treatment conditions reported substantial, but similar, decreases in pain intensity from before to after the treatment sessions. However, participants in the HYP condition, but not the BIO condition, reported statistically significant decreases in daily average pain pre- to posttreatment. These pre- to posttreatment decreases in pain reported by the HYP participants were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Participants in the HYP condition, but not the BIO condition, also reported significant pre- to posttreatment increases in perceived control over pain, but this change was not maintained at the 3-month follow-up.

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